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Scalasti is a Scala interface to the StringTemplate Java template library. It provides a subset of the features of StringTemplate, using a more Scala-friendly syntax.

Scalasti’s additional features include:

If you’re upgrading from Scalasti 2.x, see the Upgrading section, below.

If you’re just looking for the API docs, you can jump straight to that section.


StringTemplate is a Java-based template engines, comparable in functionality to APIs like Google’s Closure Templates, FreeMarker and Velocity. There are also Scala-based template engines, such as Scalate, which provides templating in a variety of popular template syntaxes.

The problem with most template languages, though, is that they’re a little (or a lot) too powerful. As Terence Parr, creator of StringTemplate, wrote, in his paper Enforcing Strict Model-View Separation in Template Engines:

The mantra of every experienced web application developer is the same: thou shalt separate business logic from display. Ironically, almost all template engines allow violation of this separation principle, which is the very impetus for HTML template engine development. This situation is due mostly to a lack of formal definition of separation and fear that enforcing separation emasculates a template’s power.

Without exception, programmers espouse separation of logic and display as an ideal principle. In practice, however, programmers and engine producers are loath to enforce separation, fearing loss of power resulting in a crucial page that they cannot generate while satisfying the principle. Instead, they encour- age rather than enforce the principle, leaving themselves a gaping “backdoor” to avoid insufficient page generation power. Unfortunately, under deadline pressure, programmers will use this backdoor routinely as an expedient if it is available to them, thus, entangling logic and display.

The opposite situation is more common where programmers em- bed business logic in their templates as an expedient to avoid having to update their data model. Given a Turing-complete template programming language, programmers are tempted to add logic directly where they need it in the template instead of having the data model do the logic and passing in the boolean result, thereby, decoupling the view from the model.

StringTemplate provides a solid template language that is:

Why Scalasti?

StringTemplate’s API is Java-centric. It relies on java.util.Collection classes, such as java.util.Map and java.util.List; these classes are clumsy to use in Scala, compared to their Scala counterparts. Worse, by default, StringTemplate uses Java Bean semantics to access object field values. While Java Bean semantics are great for Java objects, they’re not so good for Scala objects. With an API that only supports Java Bean semantics, you can only use Scala objects you can annotate with the Scala @BeanProperty annotation.

All other objects (e.g., those from APIs you do not control) must be handled in one of several ways:

The Scalasti wrapper library attempts to alleviate those pain points. Scalasti builds on-the-fly wrappers for Scala objects, using a combination of Java Proxy objects, (minimal) reflection, and bytecode generation. If you use Scalasti, you can use StringTemplate with Scala objects and collections, without wrapping them yourself and without writing either attribute renderers or complicated model adapters.


Scalasti provides a subset of the functionality in StringTemplate. In the author’s opinion, Scalasti provides the most commonly used subset, but it does lack certain features available directly in StringTemplate. For instance:

You can easily access those (more advanced) StringTemplate features by dropping down to the StringTemplate API; Scalasti makes it easy for you to gain access to the underlying wrapped StringTemplate objects. See Using Scalasti for further details.


Scalasti is published to the Bintray Maven repository, which is automatically linked to Bintray’s JCenter repository. (From JCenter, it’s eventually pushed to the automatically sync’d with the Maven Central Repository.)

Installing for Maven

If you’re using Maven, just specify the artifact, and Maven will do the rest for you:

Here’s a sample Maven POM “dependency” snippet:


For more information on using Maven and Scala, see Josh Suereth’s Scala Maven Guide.

Using with SBT

Just add:

libraryDependencies += "org.clapper" %% "scalasti" % "3.0.1"

Building from Source

Source Code Repository

The source code for the Scalasti library is maintained on GitHub. To clone the repository, run this command:

git clone git://github.com/bmc/scalasti.git

Build Requirements

Building the Scalasti library requires SBT 0.13.x or better.

Building Scalasti

If you’re using Activator:

bin/activator compile test package

If you’re using SBT directly:

sbt compile test package

Runtime Requirements

Scalasti 3 requires the following libraries to be available at runtime, for some, or all, of its methods.

Maven and SBT should automatically download these libraries for you.

Using Scalasti

The Scalasti API provides simple wrappers around the most common classes in the StringTemplate API. For various reasons, subclassing the StringTemplate classes is non-trivial, so Scalasti’s classes are wrappers that delegate their operations to the wrapped StringTemplate object. Since Scalasti does not provide the full suite of capabilities available in the actual StringTemplate classes, you can, at any point, retrieve a copy of the actual underlying StringTemplate API object, so you can interact directly with it.

Simple Examples

Create a template group that will read templates from a directory, and load a template from the group:

val group = STGroupDir("/home/bmc/templates")
val templateTry = group.instanceOf("mytemplate")

// instanceOf returns a scala.util.Try.
t.map { template =>
.recover {
  case e: Exception => // handle error

Create a template group whose contents are in a string, and retrieve a template:

val templateString =
  |foo(firstName, lastName) ::= <<
  |This is a test template. It spans multiple lines, and it interpolates
  |a first name (<firstName>) and a last name (<lastName>).

val group = STGroupString(templateString)
group.instanceOf("foo").map { template =>
  // do something with the template
.recover {
  case e: Exception => // handle error

Read a template group from a single file, and retrieve a template:

val group = STGroupFile("/home/bmc/templates/foo.stg")
val template = group.instanceOf("foo")

Read a template group from a URL, and retrieve a template:

import java.net.URL

val group = STGroupFile(new URL("http://localhost/~bmc/templates/foo.stg")
val template = group.instanceOf("foo")

Create a template on the fly:

val template = ST("Test template. <firstName> <lastName>")

Set attribute values one by one. Note that, since ST is immutable, each call to add() returns a new ST object; the original is unchanged.

val filledTemplate = template
  .add("firstName", "Moe")                         // single-valued attribute
  .add("lastName", "Howard")                       // single-valued attribute
  .add("employees", Seq("Moe", "Larry", "Curley")) // multi-valued attribute    

Set attribute values all at once:

val filledTemplate = template.addAttributes(Map("firstName" -> "Moe", "lastName" -> "Howard"))

Change how an attribute (class) is rendered. Note that this does not work on primitives (i.e., subclasses of AnyVal).

case class HexValue(n: Long)
class HexValueRenderer extends AttributeRenderer[HexValue] {
  def toString(v: HexValue, format: String, locale: Locale) = {

val memoryLocation: Long = 91234871234987l
val group = STGroupString(
  """|delimiters "$", "$"
     |hex(n) ::= <<$n$>>""".stripMargin
).registerRenderer(new HexValueRenderer)

val template = group.instanceOf("hex")
val filledTemplate = template.add("hex", HexValue(memoryLocation))

Render a template with its current set of attributes:

template.render() match {
  case Failure(ex) => // handle failure
  case Success(str) => println(str)

Support for Aggregates

The underlying StringTemplate API supports the notion of aggregates—attributes that, themselves, have attributes. StringTemplate supports aggregates via Java Bean objects and automatic aggregates. Scalasti also supports Java Bean objects and automatic aggregates, but it adds support for two other kinds of aggregates:

You’ll find more information on these two enhanced forms of aggregates further down in this document.

There are two forms of the setAggregate() method, as described below.

Automatic aggregates

To paraphrase the older StringTemplate documentation, creating one-off data aggregates is a pain; you have to define a new class just to associate two pieces of data. StringTemplate makes it easy to group data via a concept called aggregates.

In the StringTemplate API, you use the addAggr() method to add an automatic aggregate. In Scalasti, you use the ST.addAggregate() method:

val st = ST("<page.title>\n\n<page.body>\n")
st.addAggregate("page.{title,body}", title, body)

Here’s the declaration of addAggregate():

def addAggregate(aggrSpec: String, values: Any*): ST

addAggregate() mirrors, almost exactly, what the underlying StringTemplate library does. It sets an automatic aggregate from the specified arguments, returning a new template. (Because Scalasti’s ST is immutable, the original template remains unchanged.)

An automatic aggregate looks like an object from within a template, but it isn’t backed by a JavaBean. Instead, there’s special logic within StringTemplate specific to automatic aggregates.

You specify the aggregate with a special syntax. As another example, the following code defines an aggregate attribute called name, with two fields, first and last. The values in the brackets will be satisfied from the remaining arguments to addAggregate(). In other words, assuming the template start and stop characters are both “$”, $name.first$ will be replaced with “Jeff”, and $name.last$ will be replaced by “Lebowski”.

val st = ST( ... )
st.setAggregate("name.{first,last}", "Jeff", "Lebowski")

Note: This syntax does not support nested aggregates. That is, there is no way, using automatic aggregates, to produce an attribute that can be interpolated like this:


For that capability, you need Scalasti’s mapped aggregates.

Mapped Aggregates

Scalasti adds another form of aggregate attribute called a “mapped aggregate”. Mapped aggregates are a Scalasti-only feature; they are not supported in the underlying StringTemplate API.

A mapped aggregate is, simply put, a way to create StringTemplate attributes from Scala maps. The supplied map’s keys are used as the fields of the aggregate. And mapped aggregation supports nested maps.

The mapped aggregates feature allows you to create a map (or a nested maps) that you can access with dot-notation within a template. Here’s a complete example:

val st = ST("<foo.bar.baz> <foo.x.y.z>")
  .addMappedAggregate("foo", Map("bar" -> Map("baz" -> 1),
                                 "x"   -> Map("y" -> Map("z" -> "hello"))))

When rendered, the template will produce the string “1 hello”. When StringTemplate resolves <foo.bar.baz>, it’ll behave like the following code:

val foo = Map("bar" -> Map("baz" -> 1),
              "x"   -> Map("y" -> Map("z" -> "hello")))

The supplied map must use string keys; under the covers, the values in the map are mapped, recursively, to Java objects, in a similar way as add() maps values. (See below.)

Scala Bean Aggregates

Normally, StringTemplate expects non-primitive attributes to be either Java collections or Java Beans. In Scala, you can force a class to have Java Bean getters and setters by marking fields with the @BeanProperty annotation. However, sometimes that’s annoying or even impossible. For example, if you have an instance of a final Scala class from some third party API, you can’t necessarily change that class to add @BeanProperty to the fields you want StringTemplate to see; writing a wrapper class is usually your only option.

To solve this problem, Scalasti automatically wraps Scala attribute values in Java Beans, using the ClassUtil library.

Sometimes, however, you don’t want that automatic wrapping. For instance, you don’t want Scalasti to generate a Java Bean wrapper:

In the first two cases, the extra wrapping is pointless.

In the AttributeRenderer case, it would actually break the renderer lookup. With an AttributeRenderer, StringTemplate matches the values to the attributes by matching classes; the automatic Bean-wrapping breaks that matching.

In these cases, you simply add raw attributes to a template, by specifying a special third raw parameter to the add() methods. The parameter defaults to false.

st.add("foo", foo)           // foo gets wrapped in a generated Java Bean
st.add("bar", bar, raw=true) // bar gets added without wrapping

NOTE: The wrapping capability requires the presence of the ASM byte code generation library at runtime.

Access to Underlying StringTemplate

At any point, you can retrieve the underlying StringTemplate API’s StringTemplate object, via a call to the nativeTemplate method:

val st = ST(template).add("thing", thing).add("foo", foo)
val nativeTemplate = st.nativeTemplate

Once you have the native template, you can interact with it using the methods it exposes (i.e., the StringTemplate Java API methods).

WARNING: Scalasti presents an immutable view of the StringTemplate API. Calling Scalasti update functions (like ST.add(), ST.set(), ST.addAttributes(), etc.) copy both the Scalasti object and the underlying StringTemplate object it wraps. Dropping down to the native StringTemplate, while supported, bypasses all immutability protections. It also means you’re now interacting with the StringTemplate library, which expects objects with Java semantics, not Scala semantics.

Upgrading from Scalasti version 2

As of version 3.0.0, Scalasti objects are immutable. Prior to 3.0.0, Scalasti offered a mutable interface, consistent with StringTemplate. The newly immutable API works differently than the 2.x API.

Here are some of the specific differences:

Mutator methods return new objects

In Scalasti 2.x, you could create a template and then add attributes to it, as shown here:

// Scalasti 2.x
val st = ST("...")
st.add("foo", 10)
st.add("bar", "This is awesome.")

In Scalasti 3.x, that won’t work, because each call to add() returns a new object; the object on which you call add() remains unchanged. The long form solution looks something like this:

// Scalasti 3.x
val st = ST("...")
val st2 = st.add("foo", 10)
val st3 = st2.add("bar", "This is awesome.")

Of course, as with 2.x, you can chain the calls, where your logic permits, which is much cleaner:

// Scalasti 2.x and 3.x
val st = ST("...").add("foo", 10).add("bar", "This is awesome.")

Methods no longer throw exceptions

Any method that could fail now returns a scala.util.Try. There are several such methods, but the most common is ST.render().

In Scalasti 2.x, you could do this:

// Scalasti 2.x
val st = ST("...").add("foo", 10).add("bar", "This is awesome.")
println(st.render()) // render() returned a String (or threw an exception) in 2.x

If the render() call failed—for instance, because it couldn’t find a referenced attribute—it would simply throw an exception.

In Scalasti 3.x, however, render() returns a Try[String]. If the render operation works, you’ll get back a Success object that contains the rendered template. If it fails, you’ll get a Failure object that contains an exception.

There are several ways to handle this return result, shown in the snippet below:

// Scalasti 3.x

// Ugh
val t = st.render()
if (t.isSuccess) {
else {
   // handle failure, which will look kind of ugly, no matter how you do it

// Pattern matching is a little better.
st.render() match {
  case Failure(ex) => // handle failure
  case Success(str) => println(str)

// And, of course, you can map over the `Try`
import scala.util.control.NonFatal
st.render().map { str =>
.recover {
  case NonFatal(ex) => // handle failure

Also, because render() returns a Try, and Try supports map(), flatMap(), and withFilter(), you can use it in a for comprehension.

No more error listeners

StringTemplate has the notion of listeners: With the STGroup-derived classes, you can register a listener that will be notified of various types of processing errors via callbacks.

Because Scalasti now returns results as Try objects when a failure could occur, this listener interface isn’t necessary. And, besides, it’s not exactly idiomatic Scala.

Under the covers, Scalasti now registers its own listeners that throw exceptions on errors; Scalasti then catches any thrown exception and returns it in a Failure object. This approach is cleaner, more functional, and more idiomatic.

API Documentation

For full details, see the API documentation:

Additional Documentation

Consult the StringTemplate documentation for complete details on creating, deploying, and using StringTemplate templates.


Brian M. Clapper

Contributing to Scalasti

If you have suggestions or contributions, feel free to fork the Scalasti repository, make your changes, and send me a pull request.

Copyright and License

Scalasti is copyright © 2010-2017 Brian M. Clapper and is released under a BSD License.


I gladly accept patches from their original authors. Feel free to email patches to me or to fork the Scalasti repository and send me a pull request. Along with any patch you send: